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History of Ocher Machine Building Plant
1759 - A decision was made to establish a plant.
A.S. Stroganov is a founder of Ocher Machine Building Plant. On his application, Empress Elizabeth issued a permit for construction of iron making plant. According to her order as of June 7, 1759, the construction works were initiated in uninhabited area upon the confluence of four small rivers – Ocher, Duzhkovka, Berezovka and Travnaya, more than three miles away form the Luzhkovo village. Savin was a carpenter from Dobryanka who was in charge of forest clearing and damming works. First of all, barracks were constructed for workers and houses were built for clerks. Then, the walls were erected for hammer-and-bellows facilities, and machines, cast iron melting furnaces and bloomery hearths were installed. The overall supervision was conducted by Alexey Pryadilschikov, a serf from the Dubrovskoye village. Dam construction was the most challenging task. In those days, it was one of the largest water development facility in the Urals. The land for dam construction was taken by means of spades from the flank of the Kukui hill and carried by people or wheelbarrows.
1761 – The plant started to manufacture the products. This date is considered to be the plant’s birthday.
A. Stroganov was informed that four hammers were in operation for iron forging. Raw iron used for iron production was delivered from Bilimbayev Plant (Sverdlovsk region, at present) on wooden floats along the Chusovaya and Kama rivers up to the Tabor pier during the spring floods. It was unloaded there by the serfs and delivered to the plant by animal transport. The plant personnel consisted of 181 people in total, including house serfs, servants, artisans and workers. Then it was hammered to remove the slag residues mechanically and divide into pieces. The plant operated on the two-shift schedule, while a shift might last for 10-12-14 hours during iron melting. There were no changes in this schedule for more than 100 years. The plant mechanisms were driven by the force of falling water. Two big wooden bloomeries with hearths and hammers were placed on both side of supply pipe downstream the dam. A wooden filling wheel acted as a drive. The water supplied by the pipes started to rotate the wheel driving all required mechanisms. It was a very hard, manual and harassing work. Our ancestors were dependent serfs. The forged iron was brought to the Tabor pier and loaded onto the barges. Despite of many efforts and far transportation distance, manufacturing cost for a pood (16,8 kg) of iron was 20 kopecks taking into account its high quality (sheet iron was stamped by the national emblem and named “eagle iron”). From the day of its startup till the late 19th century, the plant had produced more than 3 million poods (50 mln kg) of ball iron.

The plant was served by 2107 peasants of the Solikamsk and Kungur districts. Iron was produced by application of the following technique: at first, the bloomery hearth was filled with charcoal, then it was kindled and the air stream was produced by bellows. After that, raw iron ball was placed on top of bloomery hearth and supported above the charcoal layer by crow bars. When melting, raw iron drops with slag trickled down the charcoal pieces with gradual refinement, i.e. missing silicon, manganese and carbon impurities which were burnt away and accumulated in the hearth. In the meantime, workers picked up the melted iron by long crow bars making one sticky ball. It was turned out again, lifted and subjected to the second circle of oxidizing melting. Thus an iron ball was obtained which was turned out again and heated up.
1814– Mr. Ignatyev, district counselor, was assigned a new plant manager.
Stroganovs entrusted Mr. Ignatyev, district counselor, with management of the estate relying on his vast experience in mining and metal manufacturing. Mr. Ignatyev worked out detailed production plans for Ocher and Pavlovsky plants. These plans contained overall production volumes, standard rules and wages for serf artisans which was dependent on production costs and market prices for commercial iron.
1835– A new sheet iron making factory was opened.
New factory produced tables, trays, cases and other handmade articles. All articles were manufactured manually by skilled Ocher experts and were in great demand for their distinctive design.
1840– Construction of Stone Workshops was initiated.
A.Z. Komarov, one of the most skilled Ural architects, made a design plan for the Stone Workshops of Ocher Plant, including bloomery, turning shop, tyre rolling shop, etc. In addition, the design was elaborated with account for process engineering, providing for short product paths, good working conditions and reduced costs.

1844– Construction of the Stone Workshop was completed.
This was really hard work. Sometimes the shift lasted 16 hours or more. Any faults or sabotage were strictly punished.
October 1909 – A letter was received from Saint Petersburg declaring that Ocher and Pavlovsky plants were to be closed. It informed that Stroganovs were about to close Ocher and Pavlovsky plants in November, 1910. Great efforts were made to extend this period by six months.
May 21, 1911 – The plant was closed.
To survive, people started making various handmade articles or moved to other places for better living.
June 1912 – Machine Shop was granted on lease to the Okhansk District Council.
Abandoned Machine Shop facilities were granted on lease to the Okhansk District Council where a training workshop was arranged for manufacturing of farming machines and weaponry such as threshing machines, shells and bombs, shafts and bushing for artillery two-wheeled carts, blow-out discs and shrapnel, wire-cutting scissors, table vise, anvils, etc.
October 1, 1922 – The plant was renamed in State Plant No. 5 and started to produce the farming equipment.
The production volume of the State Plant was 50 tackles per month. In addition, production of other farming equipment was set up such as dung spreaders, hay compactors, flax spreaders, flax breakers, flax pullers, hydraulic pumps, straw choppers and others. In 1922, American Fordson tractors passed along the Torgovaya Street (Lenin Street, at present) to support the meeting held in front of the district supermarket where a memorial plate had been installed to remind about the past event.
1930-1940– The pilot products for oil industry were released. They included bituminous boilers, creeper trucks, beam pumping units, drilling machines and drilling bits.
1930-1990– The plant manufactured goods for defense industry.
1950 – 1990 – The range of engineering products for oil companies was extended by pipe layers, trail hangers, rod carrying vehicles and bulldozers.

1969 – Production of suker rods was launched. Production capacity amounted to 300 thous. suker rods per year.
1984 – The second Rod Making Shop was opened. Sucker rod production capacity was increased to 1 mln rods per year.

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